The habitat diversity in Egypt, as a result of geographical, physiographic, edaphic and climatic conditions, is reflected on the plant life. The remedies used by ancient Egyptian physicians came mostly from nature, more especially medicinal herbs. Most of medicinal modalities originated from ancient Egyptian; one of them was herbal medicine. The famous Ebers Papyrus, written in 1550 B.C., gives 842 prescriptions that are made of 328 different ingredients. Among them are plant species growing in Egypt or other North African countries, e.g. Artemisia absinthium, Acacia spp. and Balanites aegyptiaca. Nowadays; Medicinal plants are considered as an important health and economic component of the flora in developed as well as developing countries. Increasing world-wide interest in herbal remedies, expanding reliance of local health care of traditional remedies and a renewed interest in the development of pharmaceuticals from plant sources have greatly increased trade in medicinal plant materials but it is hindered by lack of technical and economic data. Important populations of medicinal plants are found not only in the regions and ecosystems with high biological diversity, but also in less diverse flora and in floristic communities that are not a common focus of conservation efforts. For instance, in the arid and semi-arid zones of the Middle East, the flora may comprise very important genetic resources of crop and medicinal plants. Conservation of threatened and endangered medicinal plant species in the wild is indispensable. Egyptian Herbal Monograph is crucial because it represents our nation's best chance at conserving our medicinal plants through the wise use of our unique biodiversity resources in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition to the conservation of such natural resources, the wild medicinal plants that grow in Egyptian phytogeographical regions can be cultivated in new reclaimed lands with the least harmful ecological impacts. Since 2020, EDA has developed three volumes of the Egyptian Herbal Monograph based on the format of the European, Canadian and WHO monographs. The moment has come to compile these volumes into a single monograph that can serve as a reference for the necessary scientific files needed for the registration process.

Purpose and content of the monograph

The purpose of the monograph is to:

*Provides updated scientific information on the safety, efficacy and quality of the Egyptian medicinal plants.

*Facilitates their appropriate use.

*Facilitates information exchange and registration procedures.

This monograph was put together by a working group comprised of members of the Specialized Scientific Committee of Herbal Medicines and the Egyptian Drug Authority (EDA). The Egyptian Monograph is a compilation of the medicinal plants used in Egypt that offers comprehensive data including botanical, chemical and pharmacological information that is properly organized.


The Egyptian Monograph aims to encourage the appropriate use of herbal remedies with the highest level of safety and efficacy based on previous and current research. Each monograph follows a standard format with information and followed by a reference list. Each monograph contains all the available information and scientific results on the selected species include the following: names, synonyms, parts used for medicinal purposes, major chemical constituents, medicinal uses (indications), herbal preparations correlated to the medicinal use, posology and method of administration correlated to medicinal use, contraindications, special warnings and precautions for use, interactions with other medicinal products, other forms of interaction, effects on fertility, pregnancy, lactation, ability to drive, using machines, undesirable effects, overdose, relevant biological activities and if any additional information. This monograph is expected to go through another revision soon in response to advances in the field of herbal medicine research.

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